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Rogeneous intermediate signal t1 c+ (gd)â : variable enhancement (usually moderate to intense) 3,7 when intracranial extension is present, peritumoural cysts between it and the overlying brain are often present. This may be helpful in distinguishing it from other entities (see below) 3,7.
The margins of these cysts sometimes enhance 7. â angiography / dsa angiography demonstrates a prominent tumour blush with arteriovenous shunting, and persistent opacification. Nuclear medicine as with other neuroblastomas, olfactory neuroblastomas are mibg avid. This potentially helps to differentiate them from other tumours that arise in the region 1. Treatment and prognosis treatment usually involves combined chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy with surgical excision. Prognosis is significantly affected by presence of distant metastases (see olfactory neuroblastoma staging). No distant metastases : 60% 5-year survival 6 distant metastases : 0% 5-year survival small localised tumours have a high cure rate, up to 85 - 90% 7 differential diagnosis unfortunately, imaging alone often struggles to distinguish between olfactory neuroblastomas and other aggressive malignancies in the region. hilarious viagra jokes The differential includes 1-2: olfactory neuroepithelioma rare and indistinguishable on imaging 4 olfactory groove meningioma / haemangiopericytoma especially if inferior extension sinonasal carcinoma (including scc, minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma) may appear identical usually older patients lack peritumoural cysts 3,7 rhabdomyosarcoma melanoma metastases lymphoma may appear identical lack peritumoural cysts 3,7 nasopharyngeal carcinoma epicentre more posteriorly located usually older patients chordoma epicentre more posteriorly located high t2 signal pituitary macroadenoma epicentre more posteriorly located juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma epicentre more posteroinferiorly located almost exclusively in males often somewhat younger references 1. Sasajima t, kinouchi h, tomura n et-al. High uptake of 123i-metaiodobenzylguanidine related to olfactory neuroblastoma revealed by single-photon emission ct. Ajnr am j neuroradiol. mens viagra effects on women 2000;21 (4): 717-20.
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Ajnr am j neuroradiol (full text) [pubmed citation] 2. Rosengren je, jing bs, wallace s et-al. Radiographic features of olfactory neuroblastoma. viagra jelly gel Ajr am j roentgenol. 1979;132 (6): 945-8. Ajr am j roentgenol (abstract) [pubmed citation] 3. Connor se, umaria n, chavda sv. Imaging of giant tumours involving the anterior skull base. Br j radiol. 2001;74 (883): 662-7. Br j radiol (full text) [pubmed citation] 4. Maeda k, sasaki t, murata y et-al. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in olfactory neuroepithelioma. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
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2006;77 (1): 123-4. Doi:10. 1136/jnnp. 2005.
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066977 [free text at pubmed] [pubmed citation] 5. Sorensen ph, wu jk, berean kw et-al. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor related to ewing sarcoma. Proc. Natl.
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